Water

Glossary

Freshwater abstraction by water supply industry

"The fresh water abstraction by the water supply industry" is the water abstraction by economic units engaged in collection, purification and distribution of water (including desalting of sea water to produce water as the principal product of interest, and excluding system operation for agricultural purposes and treatment of wastewater solely in order to prevent pollution.)
The water supply industry is classified as ISIC 36 in the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. (ISIC Rev. 4).

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W2,2

Gross freshwater abstracted

Gross freshwater abstracted is the water removed from any source, either permanently or temporarily. It includes abstraction by the water supply industry (ISIC 36) and direct abstraction by other activities, and water abstracted but returned without use, such as mine water and drainage water.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W2,1 & W3,1

Gross fresh groundwater abstracted

Fresh groundwater removed from the ground, either permanently or temporarily. It includes abstraction by the water supply industry (ISIC 36) and direct abstraction by other activities, and water abstracted but returned without use, such as mine water and drainage water. Note artificial recharge is not deducted from this figure.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W2,21

Gross water abstraction (=water withdrawal)

"Gross water abstraction" is water removed from any source, either permanently or temporarily. Mine water and drainage water are included. Water abstractions from groundwater resources in any given time period are defined as the difference between the total amount of water withdrawn from aquifers and the total amount charged artificially or injected into aquifers. Water abstractions from precipitation (e.g. rain water collected for use) should be included under abstractions from surface water. The amounts of water artificially charged or injected are attributed to abstractions from that water resource from which they were originally withdrawn. Water used for hydroelectricity generation is an in-situ use and should be excluded.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 40, definition no.15

Inflow of surface & ground waters

The inflow of surface and ground waters is the total volume of actual external inflow of rivers and groundwater, coming from neighbouring countries. Boundary waters should be divided 50/50 between the two riparian countries, unless other water sharing agreements exist.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1,4

Internal flow

The internal flow is the total volume of river run-off and ground water generated in natural conditions, exclusively by precipitation within the country. The internal flow is equal to precipitation less actual evapo-transpiration and can be calculated or measured. According to UNSD, if the river run-off and groundwater generation are measured separately, transfers between surface and groundwater should be netted out to avoid double counting.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1,3

Irrigation water

Irrigation water is water which is applied to soils in order to increase their moisture content and to provide for normal plant growth. For purposes of the questionnaire, data reported under this item fit in NACE/ISIC division 01.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 63, definition no.17

Long – term annual average

The long term annual average is the arithmetic average over at least 20 consecutive years.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1

Other supply

"Other supply" is the part of water supply to agriculture which was not included under 'Public water supply' or 'self-supply' (that means all system operation for agricultural irrigation which are not individual irrigation systems). This might also include some water from self-supply distributed to other users. Double counting has to be avoided.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 63, definition no.28

Outflow of surface & ground waters

The outflow of surface and ground waters is the actual outflow of rivers and groundwater into neighbouring countries and/or into the sea.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1,6

Population connected to wastewater collection system

The percentage of population connected to the wastewater collecting systems (sewerage). Wastewater collecting systems may deliver wastewater to treatment plants or may discharge it without treatment to the environment.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 10, W7,1

Population equivalent (1 p.e.)

"Population equivalent" is the organic biodegradable load having a five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 60 g of oxygen per day.

Source: European Commission, Directorate General Environment

Precipitation

"Precipitation" is the total volume of atmospheric wet precipitation (rain, snow, hail, dew, etc.) falling on the territory of the country over one year, in million cubic metres (mio m3).

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1,1

Public water supply

"Public water supply" is water supplied by economic units engaged in collection, purification and distribution of water (including desalting of sea water to produce water as the principal product of interest, and excluding system operation for agricultural purposes and treatment of wastewater solely in order to prevent pollution). It corresponds to division 41 (NACE/ISIC) independently of the sector involved. Deliveries of water from one public supply undertaking to another are excluded.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 41, definition no.16

Renewable fresh water resources

"Renewable fresh water resources" are the combination of internal flow and inflow of surface and ground waters.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 7, W1,5

Returned water (before use or without use)

Returned water is water abstracted from any fresh water source and discharged into fresh waters without use, or before use. It occurs primarily during mining, construction activities or in connection with spring overflows. Discharges to the sea are excluded.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 41, definition no.19

Reused water

"Reused water" is used water directly received from another user with or without treatment. Excludes water discharged into a watercourse and used again downstream. It excludes recycling of water within industrial sites.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W3,5

Sea water

"Sea water" is water from a sea or ocean. On average, sea water in the world's oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%. This means that for every 1 litre (1000 ml) of sea water there are 35 grams of salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride) dissolved in it.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 10

Self-supply of water

Self-supply of water is the abstraction of water by the user for own final use.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 63, definition no.27.

Sludge

Sludge is residual sludge, whether treated or untreated, from urban waste water treatment plants.

Source: Website of European Commission, Directory General Environment

Total gross abstraction for agriculture, forestry, fishing – of which for irrigation

The total gross abstraction for agriculture, forestry or fishing is water which is applied to soils in order to increase their moisture content and to provide for normal plant growth.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 41, definition no.17.

Total gross abstraction for manufacturing industry – of which: industry cooling

The total gross abstraction of water used for industry cooling in the manufacturing industry is water which is used to absorb and remove heat. In this questionnaire cooling water is broken down into cooling water used in the generation of electricity in power stations, and cooling water used in other industrial processes.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 41, definition no.18.

Total gross abstraction – Production of electricity (cooling)

The total gross abstraction of water used for cooling in the production of electricity is water which is used to absorb and remove heat. In this questionnaire cooling water is broken down into cooling water used in the generation of electricity in power stations, and cooling water used in other industrial processes.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 41, definition no.18.

Urban waste water

Urban waste water is domestic waste water or the mixture of domestic waste water with industrial waste water and/or run-off rain water.

Source: Website of the European Commission, Directorate General Environment

Water intended for human consumption

"Water intended for human consumption" means:
(a) all water either in its original state or after treatment, intended for drinking, cooking, food preparation or other domestic purposes, regardless of its origin and whether it is supplied from a distribution network, from a tanker, or in bottles or containers;
(b) all water used in any food-production undertaking for the manufacture, processing, preservation or marketing of products or substances intended for human consumption unless the competent national authorities are satisfied that the quality of the water cannot affect the wholesomeness of the foodstuff in its finished form.

Source: Drinking Water Directive, 98/83/EC, art.2 (1)

Water losses

"Water losses" is the volume of water lost during transport (through leakage or evaporation) between a point of abstraction and a point of use, between a water supplier/distributor and a point of use or between points of use and reuse.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 63, definition no.26

Water losses during transport

"Water loss during transport" is the total volume of freshwater lost during transport between a point of abstraction and a point of use, and between points of use and reuse. It includes leakages and evaporation. It excludes losses due to illegal tapping.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W3,9, W5,2

Water Net abstraction (= water withdrawal)

Water net abstraction is water gross abstraction minus returned water.

Source: Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, version.2.2. September 2008, page 40, definition no.20

Water returned without use

"Water returned without use" is water discharged into freshwaters without use, or before use. It occurs primarily during mining and construction activities. Excludes discharges into the sea.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2010, page 8, W3,2

Water services

"Water services" means all services which provide, for households, public institutions or any economic activity: (a) abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and distribution of surface water or groundwater, (b) waste-water collection and treatment facilities which subsequently discharge into surface water.

Source: Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EC, Art.2(38)

Water utility

A "water utility" is the whole set of organization of processes and activities, means and resources necessary for abstraction, treatment, distribution or supply of drinking water and/or for collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater and for provision of the associated services. Some key features of a water utility are:

(a) its mission: to provide drinking water services or wastewater services or both,

(b) its physical area (catchment area) of responsibility and the population within this area,

(c) its responsible body,

(d) its general organization with the function of operator carried out by the responsible body, or by legally distinct operator(s), and

(e) its type of physical systems/installations used for providing the services, with various degrees of centralization.

Source: ISO def 2.53

 

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